31. 01. 2014.
Ana Ivana Zigic
KIŠA SE UPLAŠILA-----slika S.Veselinović
(Ana Ivan Žigić)
Uplašila se kiša
prestala da pada
Grane se zanjihale
vihori se pojavili
telima u toploj magli
oči planine uprte u njih
zora je gasila jednu
po jednu zvezdu
kiša je počela
ponovo da rominja.
Ana Ivana Zigic
ONAKO MUŠKI (Ana Ivan Žigić)----slikar S.Veselinović
Kada mi krik zapne u grlu
bes zamagli oči
dok kopita tutnje
u ritmu moga srca
oko mene zviždi vetar
ljubi me, njiše
a oblaci beli brišu mi suze
Raširiću ruke kao krila
u letu uhvatiti zvezdu svoju
zamisliti jednu želju
onda padati dugo
raširiće Zemlja krila
kao majka dete svoje
s ljubavlju me dočekati
izdašnom i mekom
by Aleksić Jordan Nikada toliko nisam želeo da postaneš moja, kao noći te... U toj noći ne bih te ljubio, ja bih te gutao, otimao tvoje telo, sve dok sve zvezde koje je noć prosula po tebi ne ugasim... I palile bi se vatre u očima, i talasi nadolazili, i tekli bi potoci... A ja, ja bih gasio, branio, upijao... I jutro kad bi kapljicama rose prekrilo tvoje lice, vrat, grudi, vrelim usnama bih popio, sve do jedne... Sa svakom kapljicom koju bih vrelim dahom osušio, bližili bi se novom danu, sa tvojim prstima u mojoj kosi, sa mojim licem na tvom stomaku, želeći da zaspem tu, baš tu, u središtu mog postojanja... U tebi...
THE HAMPSHIRE GYPSIES
As the Gypsies lived so close to nature it was not unusual for them to make medicines from the animals and plants of the locality, and their knowledge of folk cures is well known. But the recipes themselves are a closely guarded secret and are handed down from generation to generation. A gorgio would not know even a small part of the ingredients even though certain plants and animals are widely recognised as part of the Gypsy's medical bag.
Warts and corns were treated with the deep-orange juice of the greater celeandine, though folklore says that often the Gypsy women would wish the warts away!
Symbolism and magic are relied upon, and a New Forest Gypsy woman was reported to have said that the best way to cure warts was to impale a large black slug on a thorn bush and as the creature struggled so the wart would wither and when it finally died the wart would drop off!
Tansy, a herb with a strong spicy perfume that has a bitter flavour shows what superstition and medical lore is when an infusion of the plant was said to be good for gout, but to wear a sprig of tansy inside the boot was used to ward off fever.
Colds and bronchitis were common and a large number of plants were used for their treatment, such as the smoked or dried leaves of the coltsfoot, the Latin name being Tussicigo which means cough plant, and since the times of the Romans its leaves have been said to be beneficial for asthma and bronchitis.
The pennyroyal is also used for treating chills and colds and so was an infusion of the purple leaves of the cuckoo-pint which was first powdered down.
Ground Ivy is used and added to wood sage in a tea is said to be an excellent way of treating colds.
Snake flesh and shells of beetles were used for tonics. Animals were often more normally used in a magical way, and a Gypsy who carried the skin of a frog or eel hoped to avoid rheumatism, a spider worn about the neck in a small silk bag was said to reduce fever, Frog's flesh was used as an ointment to cure piles and pig's fat is common to may of the medical concoctions that the Gypsies made.
But plants and animals have been used in other ways, not least in the Gypsy's cooking pot. Wild garlic and nettles add flavour to a stew or roasted hedge hog which was a traditional delicacy, the animal being coated in mud and roasted, the spines coming off with the dried mud.
Also poisonous plants play a role in the Gyspy's herbal remedies. The 'drab' was a lethal mixture that was used on animals which the Gypsies would then beg from the farmer for their flesh.
In the New Forest boiled leaves of the foxglove would be used as 'drab' and mustard concealed in potatoes or bread was used to kill pigs. Other poisons such as hemlock and nightshade, as well as many kinds of fungi, aconite and the brown seeds of laburnum. The Gypsies however did not always use these poisons to kill animals, for they were known to be a cunning and versatile race when it came to tricking the gorgio. The times recorded that Gypsies suffocated a sheep in the New Forest by cramming wool into its mouth, and then managed to persuade the owner to give them the carcass on the promise they returned its fleece.
Plants and animals were also regarded in a superstitious way to not only war off evil but to bring good luck. A traditional charm against all ill wishers was the blackthorn and the menfolk would often be seen with walking sticks made from the black wood of this tree as a protection against danger.
The 'evil eye' was much feared, this was a kind of spell cast by a malevolently fixed gaze, and there were numerous charms for protection from it. The kin of a snake was hung on the caravan door to turn aside the effects.
Another form of lucky charm was the frog, and in the New Forest the water where a frog lived was always considered to be clean and drinkable. It is said in legends that after the crucifixion of Christ the Virgin Mary was consoled by a frog. The creature begged her not to cry and told her she must accept Her destiny. Mary found comfort in this and blessed the frog forever saying that wherever it lived the water would be pure and clean.
The Gypsy is always deemed to be surrounded by domestic creatures such as dogs, cats and horses and some of the dogs were deemed mochardi while others were lucky or had a special place in the family. No dog was ever allowed to enter the tent or wagon and also not allowed to lick the face of a sick person. Some Gypsies would not drink from the same source that a dog had used. Dogs were mainly used in the hunting of rabbits and hares. Cats were also considered unclean although they were often shunned for fear that they were witches 'familiers' rather than any ritual sense of being unclean.
The horse however has always been the Gypsy's best friend and it was sacred to him. The eating of horseflesh was forbidden and if one broke this taboo then they would become mad. The horse was also considered a symbol of both luck and prosperity and in the New Forest a ring that had been plaited from the hair of skewbald (brown and white) or piebald (black and white) horses, especially the stallions was considered as a good luck charm to the wearer. Hence the gypsy would sometimes be heard to say ' may your horse live long' which meant Good Luck.
The Gypsies of the New Forest claimed they were the first to tame the local wild horses and bred them for riding and towing their caravans, but the real business lay in buying and selling the animals. Horse doctoring was often devoted to hiding the defects of the animals but there were many honest remedies as well.
Nettle leaves boiled in water and used as hot as possible for a poultice was a common remedy for lameness and sometimes a poultice of green tar would be used, Sulphur and lime were often used on mange, marsh mallow ointment or a liniment of camphor, methylated spirits and oil of turpentine was used to sores and sprains.
Gypsies were also reputed for 'faking' though and even Romanies were unable to cure a horse of broken wind, but a mixture of wood tar and aniseed or treacle would relieve the condition. Just before a sale a compound of henbane and elder berries were fed to the horse to improve its breathing for a short while, just long enough to make a sale! The New Forest was the scene of the autumn pony sales about eighty years ago but nowadays there are few families in the country who make their living in horse dealing.
The traditional work of the Romanies were smiths and metal workers, musicians, hawkers and fortune tellers but the Gypsy Lore Society lists over a hundred other occupations and some of these have never been followed in this country, many of them that had have now vanished.
Agricultural work was the next most important occupation, the other being horse dealing, with the gypsies in the New Forest and at harvest time they often were seen strawberry picking on local farms. They loaded their carts and went to Kent, Worcestershire and Herefordshire for the fruit picking or to may hay.
Many Gypsies were and still are dealers in scrap metal and in the New Forest it was quite a common site to see the Gypsy riding down the street on his cart shouting out for scrap. The work was hard but a living was earned and this was reflected in a rather bitter Christmas song that the scrap merchant used to sing as he travelled around the forest.
'The roads are very dirty, my shoes are very thin,
I have a little pocket to put my money in.
Your pocket full of money, your cellar full of beer,
I wish you a merry Christmas
and a Happy New Year.'
The rest of the year was normally spent making clothes pegs, dairy churns, casks for 'home made wines' which were popular in the forest, straw baskets, beehives made from straw and nets made of string for catching rabbits. Paper and rushes were fashioned into artificial flowers and the women would gather daffodils to sell in the market. Even today there are still Gypsy women going around the town centres selling 'lucky white heather'.
The women usually hawked what the men had made and some of these wares they peddled were bought cheaply and then sold on or exchanged.
In 1897, Granny Gritt who was a Gypsy pedlar and who appears in John Nortwood's collection of Victorian and Edwardian photographs would be seen peddling tape in exchange for rabbit skins at Fawley.
Granny Gritt the Gypsy pedlar is Mary Sherred who married William Gritt, who was son of James Gritt and Sarah Harris.She was born about 1842 in either Cranborne or Winterborne, Dorset, depending on what years census returns you read! The lady chibley (thats how they used to speak in those days) sweep is Emma Gritt widow of Job Gritt who continued the business after Job's death in 1907.She was Emma Gregory a widow on her marriage to Job and was originally a Rampton.She was born about 1849.Her picture is also on the front cover of "Fleet a Second Selection" by Percy Vickery (Britain in old Photographs series ) The Gritts, Harris's, Ramptons,all seem to have intermarried along with the Rawlings, Ayres and Sopers, all chimney sweeping families. At one time apparently they used to make more money out of selling the soot than they did from the actual sweeping. In 1897 at Fawley 'Granny Gritt', a Gypsy pedlar who appears in John Norwood's collection of Victorian and Edwardian photographs, peddled tape in exchange for rabbit skins.
The door to door selling was an opportunity for the Gypsy woman to persuade a housewife to have her fortune told if they 'crossed her palm with silver' and a fair amount of money was made on the side through this. Many forms of divination were practices, with palmistry being the most usual. But English Gypsies were also know to do Tarot reading, consult crystal balls and read the tea leaves.
Often fortune telling was simply an easy way to make money but on some occasions the prediction proved to be accurate. Granny Cooper who was a New Forest Gypsy was said to have a remarkable gift of foreseeing the future and once read the hands of a Salisbury ploughman and his wife, and predicted that the couple would soon become rich and the man would not have to work again. Some days later while ploughing his field the blade struck something solid. He dug away the soil and found a crock that was filled with gold coins. Granny Cooper was handsomely rewarded and the couple lived the rest of their lives in comfort.
The Gypsy would also love entertaining and had a fondness for music and dancing. Often the women danced and sung for money at local fairs and horse races and one old New Forest Gypsy woman remembered when she and her sisters were asked to dance for King Edward VII at Epsom races. To the sound of tambourines the women swirled about in their colourful skirts performing for the king while his friends threw coins for them from the grandstand, and Granny Waters could remembe when, about the turn of the century she and her sisters would earn around fifty pounds a day dancing at other race meetings
The Lamb sisters also used to sing to large crowds at the Forest Inns, their clothes reflecting the Romany love of colour were decorated with pieces of heavy picture chain when they had no other jewellery to wear.
Gypsy life however was not always easy or happy and for centuries they were classed as beggars, thieves and vagabonds, driven from place to place. But they developed a strong will to survive and were good at subterfuge, They took on local names to appear less conspicuous, Smiths, Stanleys, Lees, Cooper, and many more, some of these can still be found in the Gypsies of Hampshire. They observed Christian rites and accepted indigenous beliefs but above all they developed an excellent self-defence against officialdom, which they looked upon as tiresome, in this they never told the truth. They did not want to let the gorgio know about their race, so they insulated themselves and protected their traditional beliefs and customs beneath a veil of conformity. Sometimes instead of speaking Romany they would use a mixture of it together with English which still made their speech unintelligible! The Gypsy language has been the subject of a lot of study and their words are still current even though there are probably very few if any English Gypsies who today speak pure Romany.
Brian Vesey-FitzGerald records an interesting example of the fact that some of the words would lie in the subconscious and only appearing in moments of excitement or distress, when he met a New Forest story teller who was recounting and exciting story of a poaching trip. As he reached the climax of the account he would suddenly exclaim 'Disilo'. When asked what this meant he would reply rather impatiently 'Day Comes'. But when he was asked days later about the word he denied all knowledge of it! The word was often used by the Gypsies of the Balkans, though he himself was unaware that he knew it.
Over a hundred years of study has shown that the Romany originally came from India though the language has both borrowed from and given to languages of the countries that the Gypsies travelled through. The English has gained the word 'pal' from phral meaning brother, 'cosh. fro Krash, a stick. But the Gypsies have no system of writing as we know it as they had no opportunity for proper education due to being nomadic. All their traditions and rites as well as laws have been passed down form word of mouth, but they do have a way of communicating between themselves and again it is in a way to keep outsiders ignorant of their movements. This secret code is the patrin, which is a system of signs left on the road they have passed along, giving a clear message to other Gypsies following later, Often these may consist of a handful of grass or a notch on a tree or maybe a cross drawn on the ground. But the Gypsy can tell which direction was taken, and how many wagons or families are in the group, even how far ahead they are. Other signs normally found on the wall of a village will show whether the villagers are friendly or not. In the New Forest bent sticks indicate travellers on foot, and straight stick meant vans, branched twigs or a spray of gorse denote a family with children. This patrin may vary from family to family and thus the information would be intended for one particular tribe, which was often the case for most New Forest of Hampshire Gypsies.
They Gypsy who lives on the edge of society loving freedom and ofte courting danger inspires a rather over romanticised picture of the way that they live. Poets such as Shakespear or Sir Walter Scott often portrayed the vagrant Gypsy as a theme. Some of their treatment however was down to George Borrow whose books first brought the Gypsy to public notice. Borrow live and travelled with the Romanies and learned their various dialects. Books such as Lavengro and The Romany Rye gave the opportunity for other authors to popularise the romantic idea of the brown skinned nomad, whose strange customs and beliefs made him into an outcast.
Borrow believed that he was recording the life style of a race that would soon vanish from the face of the earth and Charles Leiand who was another who studied the Gypsies, held the same opinion fifty years later. Twentieth century scholars believe in the fact that they are studying a group of people whose customs, languages and taboos are gradually dying out. But the romance still surrounds the Gypsy, and there are few who do remain true to the Romany way of life. In this modern world of today, with motor cars and mechanised industry, the Gypsies are classed even more so as misfits, often being greeted with signs saying 'No Camping', and also finding no outlet for their hand made crafts.
The laws relating to Gypsies have always been repressive and in 1959 the Highway Act made it an offence for them to camp beside the road. If they did camp there, the local authorities would quickly evict them and if necessary police would be used to enforce the eviction. They could not get employment or have their children schooled or apply for permanent housing.
It was in 1965 that a national survey of travellers was made, and this was the first comprehensive study of Gypsies in England, From this came a carefully planned scheme for housing them in local authority accommodation and for getting them permanent employment. After the end of WWII some of the Gypsies found shelter in disused huts on former Air Force bases, such as Ibsley and Holmsley, but in 1947 it was reported that Gypsies in the New Forest lived in these camps at a standard equal to that of the Stone Age, often without water or sanitary facilities and no proper shelter. The New Forest District Council managed to house some of these poor families during the 1950s, and the house dweller cannot really appreciate what adjustments these people ha to make in this transition to a settled life, as no provision was made for trauma until intermediate camps were set up, four of these being set up by Hampshire County Council at North Baddesley, Headley Down, Yately and at Thorney Hill near Christchurch, with each camp having a warden and a training officer.
Prefabricated bungalows housed the Gypsies and they were able to attend classes on how to use basic necessities such as electricity, how to cook and sew and generally on how to run the house. Opportunities were also available for them to learn to read and write. Many of them dealt in scrap metal but this was discouraged in favour of regular employment.
By July 1966 most of the men living in three of the county's special centres were employed as general labourers on building sites, lorry drivers or park attendants, and advantage of the Gypsy's knowledge of the Forest was taken for many of them were employed in forestry work. Around a hundred families have been settle in council houses from these intermediate camps and the programme was so successful that the camps at Headley Down and North Baddesley have been closed.
A lot of Gypsies do not wish to settle in a permanent place and in the north of England there are still families who live the nomadic life. The Hampshire families were fairly static or occupied permanent winter quarters and wanted to be housed. But groups still exist who live in sub standard camps. On the northern edge of Southampton County Borough and on the eastern border ear Eastleigh are two such camps. Here the gypsies were left to their traditional ways, dealing in scrap metal and hawking their wares, until they are also permanently settled.
Today except for the odd family that still wander over the border from Berkshire there are no long any real travellers left in Hampshire, they have been overtaken by new rules of society and have had to adjust themselves to them. With this they have lost their freedom and true identity.
THE HAMPSHIRE GYPSIES
A Gypsy family encamped in Essex in 1895
A Gypsy legend relates that God fashioned the first man from a sour lime and baked him in an oven, but He misjudged the baking-time and burned the man quite black.
It was this man that became the ancestor of the Negroes, and then God made another man and though he took care with his cooking he miscalculated the ingredients and this became the first white man in the world. But third time lucky, and the Lord baked a perfectly brown man that became the ancestor of the Gypsies.
Another less pleasant legend that explores the origin of these nomadic people and that is that they are the descendants of Cain who was outlawed by God to be a 'wanderer, a fugitive on earth' for murdering his brother Abel.
A third story is that as the bodyguards of Christ the Gypsies drank far too much and were thus unable to defend him, and a Gypsy blacksmith is said to have made the nails for the Crucifixion.
The Gypsies are also accused of not giving shelter to the Virgin Mary and Her Child as they fled out of Egypt, and for all these stories the Gypsies are doomed to be the waifs and strays of the earth.
The Gypsy people have roamed the earth since time immemorial and though modern research has shown that they originated from the north of India it was once believed that they had come out of Egypt and were known as 'Egyptians' from which the word Gypsy is derived. In Europe they were known as the 'Lords of Little Egypt' and the word for men of their own race is Rom and from this word Romany has become a name for all Gypsies.
It is not know when they settled in Britain but during the 15th century they had established themselves in Scotland and may have arrived here much earlier.
The Gypsies were nomadic and hence gathered food and hunted for small game, and became experts in the ways of animals and also herbal medicine. The forests of England were the favourite haunts of these people and the New Forest was for many hundreds of years a well loved home, mainly due to it being abundant in herbs and other medicinal plants, its wild game and also its springs of fresh water. The forest also gave them some protection from the local people who feared and despised these dark eyed people, and persecuted them for many years. The English found their language mysterious and the fact that they used herbs and plants for medicine considered them magicians. There dress was also considered strange, the women like bright colours and wore heavy jewellery and gold-hooped ear-rings which contrasted against their jet black hair, the men also wore ear-rings and had gaudy neckerchiefs.
But above all the English was awed by the nomadic life of these people and the extravagant taboos and rituals that were observed at births, marriages and death in particular, as the gypsy people would smash their tents and wagons into small pieces and set fire to them. Today though these rituals and dress are things of the past and it is difficult to visualize the life of the Gypsy a hundred years ago when most of the families spoke their own language and roamed the countryside in family's. In Hampshire most of the Gypsies have settled in to permanent housing supplied by the local council.
But at the end of the 19th century they could be found still living in tents and wagons at Shave Green, Godshill, Copythorne, Longdown, Thorney Hill, Bransgore and other places deep in the Forest. There were also a few places outside the forest which were popular with the Gypsies, Bournemouth, Blackhill near Wellow and also near the railway town of Eastleigh. It was quite a common site to see them camping in their traditional ways with their tents and carts and the occasional yard, which was a from of wagon.
Today the onslaught of economic pressure has made life for Gypsies more difficult. Goods and services are more expensive and financial assistance that many people seek out to help with things like understanding the pros and cons of annuities were not something available to most Gypsies. Many other advancements forced Gypsies to adapt such as the coming of the petrol engine which took over the horse drawn transport. Gypsies now use large trailers and trucks as well as modern caravans with all mod cons inside. A true Gypsy caravan is a rare site, though there is one standing in Sandy Balls wood at Godshill which has been lovingly restored. There is a tale that goes with this particular yardo however.
It relates how a young Gypsy lad fell in love with a girl and wanted to marry her. His bride said she wanted a real caravan that was gaily painted with carvings of intricate designs, so he painted the caravan in chrome yellow and merged it into the browns and olive greens of the Forest and painted the shutters and panels in red and blue. Inside there was all the comforts of home and it was said to be one of the most beautiful yardoes in the land and worthy of a true Romany bride.
But sadly the girl died from sickness and it may be then that he carved the two small faces which can be found at the corners of the door lintel, depicting a dark skinned man on one side and a fair haired girl on the other, to remind future generations that this caravan was made especially for two young Gypsy lovers.
It was the right of the wife that the Gypsy husband should provide the living quarters and this was normally a bell shaped tent that had a hole in the top for a chimney. 'Benders' were the traditional type of New Forest Gypsy dwelling and the name came from the fact that they were supported by a semi-circle of green saplings bent over and tied and then covered with leaves or brushwood. Most couples had their own pony and cart but the yardo was normally for the better off Gypsy.
These travellers also took pride in their colour schemes, and bright yellows, reds and blues were painted on their wagons, and a belief among them was that black is unlucky for a caravan and normally meant that somebody in the family would die before the next new moon. Though it is thought that black was used by the didkais, a mixed breed of Gypsies, but the true Romany classed black as taboo.
Gypsies married at young ages and among the pure blooded courtship and marriage were bound strongly by custom. The man often giving his dikia or neckerchief to the girl of his choice who would then fasten it over her hair if she agreed to marry him. Most couples eloped and set up their own camp and live together for a while before returning back the family fold. Though this may seem a casual affair to some, it is a known fact that divorces among the Gypsy people were extremely rare for they believe in the fact that marriage is for life.
The wedding ceremony would vary from one family to another and a lot has been written about the custom of 'jumping the broomstick'. It is unlikley that the New Forest Gypsies observed this custom and it may have been a metaphor used to indicate that the marriage did not take place in a recognised place such as a church.
The simple ceremony of holding hands was probably observed though some complex variations were practised, At Bently in 1878 such a marriage took place between David Burton and Emmy White, and in front of witnesses the couple held hands and pledged their love for one another. A loaf of bread was broken and a thorn was used to prick the thumbs of both persons and a drop of blood was dropped on each half of the loaf, this was then eaten by the couple, each one eating the half with the others blood on, the rest was them crumbled over their heads. The day after the couple returned to the camp and took part in feasting and drinking, and participating in the singing and dancing which was a part of Gypsy life that was enjoyed.
Birth also had its special customs. Women at this time were classed as mochardi, or unclean, in the ceremonial sense. And a woman that was pregnant was move from the living wagon so that it would not be defiled by the birth.
Records show that in the New Forest, Gypsy women would go alone to a certain holly tree along the Godshill Ridge to give birth, but normally a special tent was set aside and men were not allowed near the scene.
The woman would have her own set of crockery and would not prepare food for weeks before or after the birth. Once the baby was born and quarantine was ended , this could be two weeks or maybe two months, the special tent and everything inside was burnt. Like marriage, the Gypsies would often observe two levels of religious custom. The child would not be touched by its father until it had been christened, normally according to the rites of the Christian Church. These ancient rites have long since gone and Gypsy women have their babies in hospital with the husbands attending, normally in their best suits!
But the customs that were connected with death and burial have lived on and again the living wagon or tent plays an important role. If a member of the family died in it it was burnt. In harder times a special tent was erected for the dying and this was burned instead when the person had died. While the dead lay waiting for burial the Gypsies would fast and a vigil would be kept over the body, sometimes there were three who kept this vigil, which was set out to guard against the ghost of the dead arising to visit a lone person. These were quite common in the New Forest and one is recorded by Frank Cuttriss in 1915, where the watchers were changed at regular intervals. The Gypsy does not like to touch their own dead and a gorgio (non-Gypsy) was brought in to lay the corpse out for burial. The coffin was normally a lot larger than the occupant as they would be buried with their possessions. The body was dressed and buried in his best clothes and if it was a Gypsy woman, all her valuables were placed inside, unless she had full blooded Gypsy daughters to inherit them.
In Otterbourne in 1911, Alice Barney was buried with all her jewellery except a heavy gold ring which was handed to a relative and this is still around today worn by one of her descendants.
Often other things that were considered may be useful in the after life was also buried along with the body, knives, walking sticks, watches and money were all buried and a musician who was skilful would often be buried with his fiddle.
Hampshire Gypsies would often bury their dead with food to feed them on the long journey and to protect them against evil. The prepared body would be given a proper Christian burial and would normally be attended by a large number of people all come to pay their last respects.
When a former, King of the Hampshire Gypsies, Robert Cooper who was a brother of Nethemiah Cooper, was buried the local newspapers carried a report showing that nearly a hundred Gypsies attended.
Tradition says that whatever a Gypsy owned that had not been buried with him was ritually destroyed. The crockery was smashed and cooking implements and iron kettle rods would be hammered out of shape and buried, the living quarters would be bunt and reduced to ashes. Any horse or dogs would be slaughtered and buried and any horse brasses were battered and the harness cut to pieces. Nothing was to be used by the living in case the soul of the dead might return to claim what was rightfully theirs. This belief that the dead must be sent comfortably on to the next world is still around today but most of the rituals are no longer practised.
Some Gypsies however were not buried in consecrated g round and John Bairacli-Levy, who lived for a while in the New Forest found a secret Gypsy burial ground at Woodgreen, and also one at Blackwater near Farnborough may have been one as well. Often a Gypsy killed by accident was buried on the spot and his grave marked by a cross of stones. At Woodgreen there are two crosses pressed flat in the soil that are said to mark the graves of two Gypsies who died during a fight. A rose or thorn bush was often planted on the grave to prevent the ghost from emerging. But normally once the burial had taken place the grave was normally forgotten, though there are instances where an annual pilgrimage has been made to burial grounds, one notable one was or Gernaia Lee who was buried at Otterbourne, and here relatives came every year from Nottingham on the anniversary of her death to tie red ribbons on the thorn bush growing on the grave.
Delimično otklonjena diskriminacija Roma u kontejnerskim naseljima
Više od godinu dana od donošenja preporuke poverenice za zaštitu ravnopravnosti zbog diskriminacije koju Gradska uprava Grada Beograda vrši prema Romima koji stanuju u kontejnerskim naseljima formiranim nakon prinudnih iseljenja neformalnih naselja nisu otklonjene posledice diskriminatornog postupanja.
Radi podsećanja, poverenica je postupala po pritužbi Praxisa zbog uspostavljanja pravnog režima u kontejnerskim naseljima od strane Gradske uprave, koji ne važi za ostale kategorije stanovnika. Ovim pravnim režimom Gradska uprava propisala je da u slučaju da Romi koji stanuju u kontejnerskim naseljima ne usvoje „pravila lepog ponašanja prema predstavnicima institucija grada Beograda“, zatim ne pokažu „aktivan odnos prema naporima Grada da se socijalizuju pojedinci i njihove porodice“ ili pak ukoliko „prime goste u kontejnerima u kojima stanuju“, oni mogu biti prinudno iseljeni iz alternativnog smeštaja koji im je obezbeđen. Istovremeno, odredbe Kućnog reda koje su gradske vlasti nametnule stanovnicima kontejnerskih naselja podsticale su predrasude i stereotipe prema Romima.
Umesto izmene Kućnog reda koji je važio za stanovnike kontejnerskih naselja i usvajanja novog, Gradska uprava je u „dogovoru“ sa stanovnicima naselja donela „Pravila za bolji i zdraviji život“ kojima su preformulisana prethodna pravila Kućnog reda. Istovremeno, osim obaveze usvajanja „pravila lepog ponašanja prema predstavnicima institucija Grada Beograda“ razlozi za iseljenje iz mobilnih stambenih jedinica su ostali isti, a prinudna iseljenja Roma koji stanuju u ovim naseljima se nastavljaju.
Pravno nevidljiva lica
ponedeljak, 27. januar 2014.
Manje pravno nevidljivih Roma
Preuzeto od BETE
Državna sekretarka Ministarstva pravde Gordana Stamenić izjavila je danas da je od 2009. godine u Srbiji u matičnu knjigu rođenih naknadno upisano 20.679 Roma, a plan je da do 2015. godine budu upisani svi oni koji su trenutno "pravno nevidljivi". Stamenić je novinarima u Beogradu kazala da nema tačne podatke o broju neupisanih Roma, ali da postoji utisak da se njihov broj smanjuje zbog sve manje zahteva za naknadni upis.
Ona je na predstavljanju rezultata projekta o rešavanju problema Roma koji nemaju lična dokumenta, istakla da je Zakon o matičnim knjigama iz 2009. godine doprineo mnogo, ali da je 2012. godine bilo neophodno doneti Zakon o izmenama i dopunama Zakona o vanparničnom postupku.
"Zakon o matičnim knjigama prepoznao je i decu bez roditeljskog staranja, kao i upisivanje u matične knjige posle propisanog vremena, ali je bilo slučajeva kada lica nisu mogla da dokažu tačan datum rođenja, pa se išlo u vanparnični postupak", rekla je Stamenić.
Prema njenim rečima, vanparnični postupak za utvrđivanje vremena i mesta rođenja, pored lica koje žele da ostvare to pravo, može da pokrene i centar za socijalni rad, pri čemu su oslobođeni svih sudskih i administrativnih taksi.
Stamenić je naglasila da je rešavanju problema Roma posebno doprineo Sporazum o razumevanju koji su u aprilu 2012. godine potpisali Ministarstvo pravde, Zaštitnik građana i Visoki komeserijat Ujedinjenih nacija za izbeglice (UNHCR).
Na osnovu tog sporazuma, kako je rečeno, organizovane su brojne obuke sudija, zaposlenih u centrima za socijalni rad i matičara, kao i posete naseljima Roma. Šef predsedništva UNHCR u Srbiji Eduardo Arboleda naglasio je da je Srbija prva zemlja na Zapadnom Balkanu koja je potpisala takav sporazum i aktivno radi na rešavanju problema "pravno nevidljivih".
"Ima još puno da se radi, jer sva deca po rođenju imaju pravo da budu upisana u matičnu knjigu rođenih, dok je kod onih koji nemaju prebivalište omogućeno da ga prijave na adresi centra za socijalni rad, kako bi se obezbedili uslovi za dobijanje ličnih karata", rekao je Arboleda.
Zamenik zaštitnika građana Robert Sepi izrazio je zadovoljstvo što je partnerstvo sa Ministarstvom pravde i UNHCR dalo rezultate i ocenio da se problem upisivanja Roma rešava brzo i sa dobrom dinamikom.
Podsećanje na odgovornost povodom tragičnog ishoda požara u Velikoj Krsni
Mreža organizacija za decu Srbije – MODS izražava duboku potresenost tragičnom smrću troje dece u požaru u Velikoj Krsni.
Ovaj događaj je posledica stanja u društvu i sistema zaštite dece i podrške roditeljima koja izostaje, a na šta sve vreme ukazujemo. Bojimo se da se iz ove tragedije neće izvući pouka i da neće doći do preko potrebnih promena.
Ukazivali smo da nedostaje saradnja između različitih službi na lokalnom i nacionalnom nivou koje su zadužene za zaštitu dece. Nedostaju usluge i podrška na lokalnom nivou za porodice sa decom, posebno siromašne porodice i jednoroditeljske.
Postavlja se pitanje da li patronažne službe izveštavaju o slučajevima zanemarivanja dece? Da li patronažne službe obaveštavaju o tome Centar za socijalni rad? Šta Centar za socijalni rad preduzima da do tragedija ne dođe? Kako lokalne samouprave planiraju socijalnu politiku i zaštitu dece?
Lako je osuđivati majku zbog ove tragedije i govoriti kako su svi u okolini znali za ono što radi a pri tom niko nije reagovao na vreme.
Gubimo iz vida da ona nije jedina majka koja je ostavljena sama sa decom, bez posla. Gubimo iz vida da je ostala bez podrške najbližih, porodice, susedstva. Moralna je (i zakonska) obaveza svakog pojednica da reaguje i prijavi svaku sumnju na zanemarivanje i zlostavljanje dece. Jer to se tiče svih nas i u tom slučaju snosimo svi i posledice.
Ako kao društvo ne izvučemo pouku, ne osvestimo se da i na svakom od nas pojedinačno leži odgovornost za nečinjenje, bojimo se da ćemo uskoro ponovo iz medija saznati za novu tragediju čije će žrtve biti naši najmlađi građani.
Zato pozivamo državne organe i relevantna ministarstva zdravlja i socijalne zaštite da tragični događaj u Velikoj Krsni, kada je život izgubilo troje dece, bude poslednja opomena i upozorenje i da se preduzmu sve mere koje će sprečiti u buduće ovakve užasne događaje.
Uz ovo saopštenje prilažemo i izjavu Smiljke Tomanović, profesorke na Odeljenju za sociologiju, Filozofskog fakulteta u Beogradu:
"Poslednji tragični događaj u kome je poginulo troje dece otvorio je nekoliko teških i važnih pitanja koja se periodično postavljaju, ali nažalost i ponavljaju, jer na njih izostaju delatni odgovori.
Kao prvo, zašto izostaje državna podrška odgovornom roditeljstvu i institucionalna podrška na lokalnom nivou, posebno onim porodicama koje su pod rizikom, kao što su jednoroditeljske?
Zašto su nadležne institucije skoro po pravilu "neobaveštene" i "zatečene" događajima, odnosno "slučajevima" koji se nalaze na teritoriji njihove nadležnosti?
Potom, šta se čini da se deca zaštite od zanemarivanja i zlostavljanja, odnosno na koji način se sankcioniše zanemarivanje?
Prema Porodičnom zakonu iz 2005. godine nije dozvoljeno ostavljanje dece predškolskog uzrasta bez nadzora odraslih i o tome bi javnost, baš u cilju podsticanja odgovornijeg roditeljstva i pomoći roditeljima kojima je pomoć u čuvanju dece potrebna, trebalo da bude stalno obaveštavana.
Zašto se prema (neobavezujućem) Protokolu o zaštiti dece od zanemarivanja i zlostavljanja ne sankcioniše nečinjenje onih koji su bili svedoci ili imali sumnju da do zanemarivanja i zlostavljanja dolazi, bili oni državni službenici ili građani (roditelji, rođaci, komšije, prijatelji)?
Na kraju, dokle će mediji da koriste ljudske i porodične tragedije i zloupotrebljavaju decu za podizanje prodavanosti svojih tiraža?
Mnogo je ružnih grešaka, mnogo je odgovornih, mnogo je prebacivanja krivice. Vreme je da tome dođe kraj, tako što ćemo konačno kao društvo izvući pouku iz još jedne tragedije i početi da delamo."
ponedeljak, 27. januar 2014.
CSR Bujanovac uskratio novčanu socijalnu pomoć interno raseljenim licima
Interno raseljena lica koja žive u kolektivnim centrima u Bujanovcu ne primaju novčanu socijalnu pomoć jer je centar za socijalni rad njihove zahteve odbijao usled toga što im je u kolektivnim centrima obezbeđen smeštaj, ishrana i ne plaćaju struju i komunalije. U odlukama kojima su zahtevi odbijani, centar se pozivao na akt nadležnog Ministarstva rada, zapošljavanja i socijalne politike.
Imajući u vidu posebno ranjiv položaj interno raseljenih lica i loše uslove života u kolektivnim centrima, Praxis se obratio Ministarstvu tražeći dostavljanje instrukcije ili uputstva koje je prosleđeno centrima za socijalni rad. Ministarstvo je obavestilo Praxis da ne postoji niti je centrima za socijalni rad prosleđen akt koji bi određivao način i uslove za odobravanje novčane socijalne pomoći interno raseljenim licima koja žive u kolektivnim centrima.
U tom smislu, Praxis je obavestio direktora Centra za socijalni rad Bujanovac o potrebi preduzimanja mera koje bi doprinele pravilnoj primeni Zakona o socijalnoj zaštiti i omogućile da se o zahtevima interno raseljenih lica odlučuje u skladu sa zakonom i na zakonom zasnovanoj proceduri, a na odluke kojima su zahtevi interno raseljenih lica odbijani blagovremeno su uložene žalbe.